Category Archives: Vintage Microphones

Mélodium 76A 1960’s / 70’s

Looking like a cross between a Van Gogh Sunflower and a pepper pot, the Mélodium 76a is a shining gem of chrome and aluminium. A classic of French design!

Melodium 76A Front Grill

In the 1960’s Mélodium developed a variety of modular parts and accessories to give their range of microphones greater versatility and customers more options.

The basic 76A microphone (head) came with a choice of 10 ohms or 200 ohms impedance.

Melodium 76A Head

The mic could be used plugged straight into the cable. (Great for harmonica players!)

If required this handy plug-in transformer converts the 76A from 200 ohms to Hi-Z.

Melodium 76A Transformer

There was also a choice of handles.

Melodium 76A Detachable handle

Melodium 76A with 314 Handle

In this 1970’s Mélodium Catalogue (below) the technical details of the microphones are presented along with a full range of parts and accessories, including goosenecks, tall stands, short stands, table stands and a large selection of adapters, switches and transformers. It is a very comprehensive selection, to cover every possible application.

CLICK Here for MelodiumCatalog

Sadly these days it is hard to find much information about Mélodium. Even in its heyday the company was little known outside of the French speaking world. By the end of the 1970’s Mélodium were no longer in business. Probably wiped out by the superior German and American competition.

Melodium 76A

Finally

Having finished re-soldering all of the joints in my eBay ‘bargain’, I just need to plug it in and find out what it sounds like!

CLICK HERE for Sound clip of Voice and Blackbird in the garden.

Mélodium 76A 1960’s / 70’s Construction Kit!

Mélodium 76A Construction Kit

When the previous owner mentioned in the description that there were ‘a few wiring issues’ with this vintage French PA microphone he wasn’t kidding! (It looked perfect enough in the eBay photograph!)

Was that why it was so cheap, and no one else bid? Hmmm…….

So now for a bit of fun wiring it back together!

I’ll report back if it by some miracle it works!!

P.S.  Just to make things a little more exciting Mélodium have their own plugs and sockets that only fit Mélodium microphones. They are made so that the pins can be moved about in various configurations up to 5 pins! This 431 socket will be 3 pin…… when I get them in the right holes!

Melodium 431 plug

P.P.S  Just noticed that there should be a rubber gland inside the knurled ring at the top!

The STC4001B Acoustic Baffle for the STC4021 (Apple & Biscuit) circa 1935.

The very first post that I wrote for this blog back in 2012 was about the STC4021 (Apple & Biscuit). Still one of my favourite microphones.  I even made a YouTube video to go with it! In the course of the video I mentioned the STC4001B Acoustic Baffle. According to the STC brochure this could be purchased to modify the frequency response and directionality of the microphone. These days the 4001B Acoustic Baffle is very hard to find. So imagine my surprise when a brand new old stock 4001B (still in the box) appeared on eBay. 

So I thought I had better ‘Buy it now‘ and make another video to celebrate the occasion!

 

Mélodium  Mélodynamic 75A (1948-1958)

Melodium 75A

Made in Paris between 1948 and 1958 by Mélodium Société, 296 rue Lecourbe 15eme.

Although visually the design harks back to the 1930s it has a surprisingly modern sound. This is borne out by the frequency graph, which shows a smooth response from 50 Hz to 10 kHz.There is a presence lift of 5db at around 4.8 kHz which lends clarity and crispness, particularly to speech and vocals.

The 75A boasts a very light duralumin diaphragm and voice coil (30mg), giving good transient response. It is also claimed that the microphone is impervious to wind, making it an excellent choice for outside broadcasting and sports reporting.

The grill design featured in the technical leaflet above was used on the earlier models.

Melodium 75A Grill

 Melodium 75A Side view

If you buy a Mélodium 75A it is worth noting that it has very low impedance (10 ohms) and will require the services of an appropriate preamp.

Also, the plug socket on the 75A is peculiar to Mélodium!  (N.B. The earliest models have 3 screw terminals.)

Melodium 75A Plug socket

N.B. Right hand pin is ‘hot’. Left hand pin ‘cold’. Centre pin is earth.

Famous Users.

The Mélodium 75A was employed extensively by French broadcasters and was used by many famous entertainers and politicians, including the singer Edith Piaf and President Charles de Gaulle.

President Charles de Gaulle.

‘Non’

 

Even with this slightly creepy, wax works figure of Edith Piaf, at Musée Grévin in Paris, the Mélodium 75A takes stage centre!

CLICK HERE for a short voice recording using the 75A

 


 

Shure 430 ‘Commando’ Controlled Magnetic / Controlled Reluctance Microphone (Circa 1957)

Shure Model 430 CommandoShure 430 Commando grill

The Controlled Reluctance microphone (aka Controlled Magnetic) was developed by Shure during World War 2 to fulfil the need for a battle announce microphone that could operate reliably at extremes of temperature and humidity. (Subsequently also perfect for Korea and Vietnam!)

Although the Controlled Reluctance design was in some respects similar to a conventional dynamic in other ways it was significantly different.

The 2 diagrams below illustrate the differences.

  • DYNAMIC MICROPHONEDynamic-moving-coil-diagram
  • CONTROLLED RELUCTANCE/MAGNETIC MICROPHONE (2 slightly different versions)Controlled Reluctance Microphone Sectional Diagram

Here, in response to an email enquiry, is an explanation from Shure of the working of this microphone

On 3 May 2017 15:06, “Shure Europe” <support@shure.eu> wrote:

Response By Email (Michael P) (05/03/2017 09:06 AM)

Controlled reluctance is a variation of a dynamic mic.  The controlled reluctance mic diaphragm connects to a small lever made from ferrous material.  The other end of this lever is positioned inside of a stationary coil of wire.  Surrounding the coil of wire is a stationary magnet.  As the ferrous lever is moved by the mic diaphragm, the lever disturbs the magnet field.  This induces an AC signal (the audio signal) in the coil of wire.

Answer Link: Difference between controlled reluctance and controlled magnetic

This type of mic was originally designed for military applications.

Michael Pettersen

Shure Historian

 


2 pin Ampenol Connector

If you buy a 430 make sure it comes with one of these as 2 pin Amphenol connectors are hard to find.

The CR/CM elements have a high output (making them suitable for transmission over large distances) and require no additional transformer. They are therefore cheaper to manufacture than a conventional dynamic.

After WW2 Shure introduced several models for the civilian market, including the famous Green Bullet (still popular with harmonica players to this day). These were mostly budget PA mics intended for speech applications such as paging and announcements. Whilst not being particularly noted for high quality audio, their main selling points were cheapness and reliability. It is therefore not hard to see why these sturdy, affordable mics soon found favour with musicians and singers.

Apart from being highly profitable, Shure’s military communications contracts had the additional spin-off of enhancing a lasting reputation for reliability. Indeed, the company have often boasted that all of their products are tested to military standards (MILSPEC).  Even though the Model 430 was made for the civilian, domestic market it nevertheless trades on its military heritage with the name ‘Commando’ and it’s distinctive, camouflage green head!

Shure 430 Commando head

Data Sheet for the Shure Commando series.:-     us_pro_415_ug

Shure Microphones  :-  1957 Catalogue

 430 Commando Original Box

So what does it sound like?  CLICK HERE for a short clip of spoken word and Blues Harmonica.

 

Sennheiser MD441-U Another Classic Dynamic Microphone! (1971 to the present)

Following on somewhat from the theme of the previous post.

Sennheiser MD441-U

Sennheiser MD441-U Grill

Launched in 1971 as Sennheiser’s flagship dynamic the MD441 has remained in production ever since. Famous users include David Bowie, Stevie Nicks and Elton John. It is a superb example of German design and engineering, and even today has few competitors. However, a microphone of this quality does not come cheap. A new MD441-U will set you back around £700.00 !

Cool Mic Dave!

When AKG produced the remarkable D224 (c1967) they went to great lengths with their twin capsule design to eliminate proximity effect, and create a wide, flat frequency response from 30Hz-20 kHz, regardless of distance from source. With the MD441 Sennheiser took a rather different approach. Whist the frequency response is similar to the AKG (30Hz-20kHz), Sennheiser allow the user of the MD441 to have creative control over proximity effect and also high end brilliance.Sennheiser MD441-U Frequency response graphs

This is achieved using a five position bass roll-off switch and a 2 position brilliance switch. This provides a choice of 10 different frequency curves to suit the needs of a wide range of applications!

The Sennheiser MD441 User Manual below explains very thoroughly the operation and characteristics this extraordinary dynamic microphone.

Sennheiser MD441 Manual.

Sennheiser MD441-U

So What Does It Sound Like?  CLICK HERE for a drum clip illustrating the wide frequency response, dynamic range and highly detailed transient response.

CLICK HERE for Tenor sax and clarinet.

In Conclusion
Whether you choose heavy metal guitar at full volume, or a solo violin, a baroque recorder, or a baritone sax, the MD441 delivers! There is little to distinguish between what goes in and what comes out! It sounds remarkably natural on a wide range of acoustic instruments and the human voice. The Sennheiser MD441-U has all the subtlety normally associated with a high quality condenser combined with the smoothness and punch of a great dynamic. If I was only allowed one microphone in my ‘desert island’ studio this would probably be it!

Electro-Voice EV642, 643, & 644 Cardiline Microphones , (circa)1960

Ever since the advent of the ‘Talkies’ sound technicians have struggled to pick up speech in motion pictures with sufficient clarity. For many years the problem of getting the microphone close enough to the performers without it being in the camera shot was a constant challenge!  On the other hand if the mic was too far away the sound was often ruined by the pickup of unwanted surrounding noise.

Seeking to address this problem, in October 1959 Wayne A. Beaverson of Electro-Voice filed for a patent on a new type of directional microphone which could be successfully operated at a distance from the sound source.  At low frequencies this microphone exhibits the directional characteristics of a cardioid mic, with excellent rear rejection. As the frequency response rises it becomes a line mic with considerable attenuation of unwanted sound from the sides. Thus the new ‘Cardiline’ design provides excellent directivity right across its operating frequency range.

Electro-Voice Patent for Unidirectional Microphone 1963

The success of the new microphone was such that in 1963 Electro-Voice received an Academy Awards “Oscar” for the development of the model 642 Cardiline, The award, in part, read “To Electro-Voice for a highly directional dynamic line microphone… capable of picking up sound in situations where a microphone cannot be placed close to the sound source and where unwanted sounds are to be discriminated against.”

Although the Academy Award went to the 642, the microphone drawn and described in the original patent application was in fact its close cousin the EV644. At this point you might be wondering about the 643?  Well ……… The 643 was pretty much the same as the 642 except in one significant detail ……… it was just over 7 feet long!  All three of these mics were of the Cardiline pattern but they were aimed (excuse the pun) at different areas of the market. As we know, the 642 was tailored very much for the film and TV industry and came with an elastic mount for attaching to a boom.

EV642 Advert 1963

EV643  Advert

Electro-Voice_643 Advert

electrovoice_643_2

Although extravagant claims are made for the mighty 643 in the advert above, I suspect that this mic was in fact quite awkward and unwieldy to use (even sighting along the barrel!!) It is certainly hard to find any fond recollections of it. I came across one report from some poor sod who once spent an afternoon standing on the roof of a football stadium trying to follow the ball round the field!! Anyone who has ever operated a theatre follow spot will appreciate just how ludicrous that must have been!

Which leaves the 644. (My latest eBay bargain!)

electro-voice-ev644

Designed for use on stage, in theatres, auditoriums and churches,  the EV644 Sound Spot came with a microphone stand mounting and was finished in classic Electro-Voice chrome. You could also buy it with a dull matt paint finish,(non-reflective under lighting), but why do that when the chrome version just looks so rock’n’roll cool !

Allied Catalogue 1960

List Price $110. A bargain at $64.68 ! (Not cheap in 1960!)

ev644-back-end ev644-body-and-stand-mountev644-end-grillev644-original-box-insideev644-original-box

CLICK HERE for Voice recording at a distance of 12ft

CLICK HERE for Glockenspiel Recording

In Conclusion

The 1963 patent shown above acknowledges a number of earlier inventions relating to directional microphones. In particular the patents of Harry Olson dating back to 1939. However, the earlier inventions, (mostly involving complex arrangements of multiple tubes of differing lengths), were awkward and cumbersome. In contrast, Beaverson’s Cardiline microphone, using a single multi-path tube feeding a single cardioid capsule, was an uncomplicated work of genius. It was both effective and easy to use.

To this day the elements of Beaverson’s patent can to be seen in shotgun microphones all over the world.

Below are the Techincal Specification Sheets for all 3 microphones.

Electro-Voice 642 Spec Sheet

Electro-Voice 643 Tech Spec.

Electro-Voice 644 Tech Spec