Tag Archives: Talking Pictures

Electro-Voice EV642, 643, & 644 Cardiline Microphones , (circa)1960

Ever since the advent of the ‘Talkies’ sound technicians have struggled to pick up speech in motion pictures with sufficient clarity. For many years the problem of getting the microphone close enough to the performers without it being in the camera shot was a constant challenge!  On the other hand if the mic was too far away the sound was often ruined by the pickup of unwanted surrounding noise.

Seeking to address this problem, in October 1959 Wayne A. Beaverson of Electro-Voice filed for a patent on a new type of directional microphone which could be successfully operated at a distance from the sound source.  At low frequencies this microphone exhibits the directional characteristics of a cardioid mic, with excellent rear rejection. As the frequency response rises it becomes a line mic with considerable attenuation of unwanted sound from the sides. Thus the new ‘Cardiline’ design provides excellent directivity right across its operating frequency range.

Electro-Voice Patent for Unidirectional Microphone 1963

The success of the new microphone was such that in 1963 Electro-Voice received an Academy Awards “Oscar” for the development of the model 642 Cardiline, The award, in part, read “To Electro-Voice for a highly directional dynamic line microphone… capable of picking up sound in situations where a microphone cannot be placed close to the sound source and where unwanted sounds are to be discriminated against.”

Although the Academy Award went to the 642, the microphone drawn and described in the original patent application was in fact its close cousin the EV644. At this point you might be wondering about the 643?  Well ……… The 643 was pretty much the same as the 642 except in one significant detail ……… it was just over 7 feet long!  All three of these mics were of the Cardiline pattern but they were aimed (excuse the pun) at different areas of the market. As we know, the 642 was tailored very much for the film and TV industry and came with an elastic mount for attaching to a boom.

EV642 Advert 1963

EV643  Advert

Electro-Voice_643 Advert

electrovoice_643_2

Although extravagant claims are made for the mighty 643 in the advert above, I suspect that this mic was in fact quite awkward and unwieldy to use (even sighting along the barrel!!) It is certainly hard to find any fond recollections of it. I came across one report from some poor sod who once spent an afternoon standing on the roof of a football stadium trying to follow the ball round the field!! Anyone who has ever operated a theatre follow spot will appreciate just how ludicrous that must have been!

Which leaves the 644. (My latest eBay bargain!)

electro-voice-ev644

Designed for use on stage, in theatres, auditoriums and churches,  the EV644 Sound Spot came with a microphone stand mounting and was finished in classic Electro-Voice chrome. You could also buy it with a dull matt paint finish,(non-reflective under lighting), but why do that when the chrome version just looks so rock’n’roll cool !

Allied Catalogue 1960

List Price $110. A bargain at $64.68 ! (Not cheap in 1960!)

ev644-back-end ev644-body-and-stand-mountev644-end-grillev644-original-box-insideev644-original-box

CLICK HERE for Voice recording at a distance of 12ft

CLICK HERE for Glockenspiel Recording

In Conclusion

The 1963 patent shown above acknowledges a number of earlier inventions relating to directional microphones. In particular the patents of Harry Olson dating back to 1939. However, the earlier inventions, (mostly involving complex arrangements of multiple tubes of differing lengths), were awkward and cumbersome. In contrast, Beaverson’s Cardiline microphone, using a single multi-path tube feeding a single cardioid capsule, was an uncomplicated work of genius. It was both effective and easy to use.

To this day the elements of Beaverson’s patent can to be seen in shotgun microphones all over the world.

Below are the Techincal Specification Sheets for all 3 microphones.

Electro-Voice 642 Spec Sheet

Electro-Voice 643 Tech Spec.

Electro-Voice 644 Tech Spec

A Rare Siemens (?)/ Telefunken (?)/ Klangfilm (?) Ribbon Microphone. (circa 1931)

The Facts

  1. It is a cardioid ribbon microphone.
  2.  Weighs over 10lbs.
  3. The microphone was aquired many years ago in America by the previous owner, the film editor David Hawkins (known for his work on the films of Jean Renoir and also The Collector.)
  4. It carries no manufacturer’s identification marks……….. however
  5. The lower half of the microphone is identical to the Siemens SM3, (aka Telefunken  ELA M25b and ELA M201 and as Klangfilm ELM24) as specified in Siemens (UK Reg) Ribbon Patent 1931
  6. On the front there is a simple brass plate declaring it to be a ‘Microphone Type R’ and a ‘Serial No 1028’

An Interesting Comparison

1930’s Siemens SM3 technical illustration

Same view of lower half of my Siemens (?) Appears to be identical, even down to the painted letter N indicating the polarity of the magnet.

My Theory

In the history of microphone technology Harry Olson of RCA is often credited with having invented the ribbon microphone and developed the first directional microphone. However, whilst it is important to recognise Olson’s major contributions to microphone technology, the accolade for inventing the ribbon microphone clearly belongs to Erwin Gerlagh and Walter H  Schottky, working for the German company Siemens in the mid1920’s. It was also the case that the early Siemens models such as the SM3 were well known for their directional properties. The back of the ribbon is enclosed by a huge ring magnet, and an ingenious arrangement of acoustic chambers,  thereby producing a cardioid polar pattern. Although the lower half of my huge microphone, including the magnet and ribbon assembly, is identical to the standard SM3, the upper half appears to be an additional acoustic chamber of some sort, packed with wadding (perhaps to provide additional damping to the ribbon and influence the HF reproduction?)

In the early days of Talking Pictures in America the microphones available were omnidirectional and thus it was difficult to balance the level of one actor’s voice against another especially if the one was more powerful than the other. Omnis also tended to pick up camera noise and anything else in the way of unwanted sounds on the set, considerably degrading the quality of the finished product.

Technical competition within the industry was fierce and American film studios of the period had strong commercial ties with the major players in the development of cinematic technology such as Western Electric and RCA.  In Europe competition came from the Tobis-Klangfilm cartel, and Siemens was pumping large sums of money, and expertise, into developing the technical prowess of its Klangfilm system.

However, there is a small body of evidence that would suggest that a number of American studios, realising the advantages of a directional microphone, bought in the Siemens microphone. It is well documented that MGM used one on the voice of Jeanette MacDonald in their 1935 film of the operetta ‘Naughty Marietta’. It is interesting to note that Douglas Shearer (head of MGM’s technical department) won an Oscar for the sound on that film! The Siemens mic was subsequently used on several other films featuring Jeanette McDonald and Nelson Eddy in order to even up the level difference between their voices ( Eddy being much more powerful.)

My suspicion is that the use of the Siemens microphone in American studios before the arrival of Olson’s superior RCA models was perhaps more wide spread than has been previously admitted! Could this be a possible reason why this Siemens(?) mic in my collection bares no German markings…… could it be that they have been carefully removed for reasons of commercial sensitivity? …… and is the plate on the front in English simply an attempt to make it appear to be of American origin?

As the decade progressed the Siemens was largely superseded by the, lighter and more sophisticated RCA models developed by Harry Olson. Also the dual element Western Electric 639-A.

In Germany the Siemens microphone was popular throughout the 1930’s appearing regularly on stage and on screen with that rising star of news reel cinema, Adolf Hitler! During the 1930’s Siemens formed close ties with the Nazi party and helped substantially to finance Hitler’s war machine. During WWII Siemens went on to employ thousands of slave labourers in their factories……….. All of which makes me wonder……  Could it also be a possibility that uncomfortable associations with Germany and Nazism lead to the de-badging of my Siemens microphone?

Conclusion

I think that there is no doubt that the lower half of this microphone, including the huge magnet, cased in shiny black leather, and the ribbon motor assembly were manufactured by Siemens. Whether the upper chamber was a later modification by a third party or whether the whole thing is a very rare model or even a prototype we may never know. Seimens own records for this period are somewhat incomplete and I have found no documentation or pictures (anywhere) relating to this exact model.

If anyone reading this has any more information or other theories relating to this post I would be very interested to hear from you. Meanwhile here are a few more pics of this extraordinary piece of hardware.

Wadding in top chamber.

Empty top chamber. Screws on inside left indicate possible position of missing transformer.

Ribbon assembly removed, awaiting a new ribbon.

Ribbon, cut, crimped and ready to tension

Ribbon in place ready to slot into gap.

Siemens SM3 Magnet gap into which ribbon assembly slots.

Upside down. (though I think it is designed to work either way up.)

Finished at last!! Fully restored and working…… so pleased!!

So what does it sound like?  Here is my first test recording on acoustic guitar.  (many thanks to Den and Adrian for a fun afternoon experimenting!)

Guitarist Den Parratt with the author setting up the mic for our first recording!

Following in the footsteps of mad dictators and MGM film stars of the 1930s here is a vocal clip from talented young singer Joe Martin.

Joe Stalin. Another satisfied customer!