UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53 Cardioid Condenser (1970’s/80’s)

History

In the early 1970’s MB Electronic (now known as MBHO) produced the MB C540. This was a high quality battery powered condenser microphone. It boasted an almost flat frequency response from 20Hz to 20kHz with a slight dip at the low end. The MB C540 was modular in construction and had the option of 2 capsules (omni or cardioid).

MB C 540 AdvertMB C 540 Frequency response

In the UK it appeared as the PEERLESS MBC-540.

Reviewed here in Studio Sound May 1977.Review. Peerless MBC 540 - Studio Sound - May 1977

Meanwhile in Communist Era Eastern Europe.

This German design was also manufactured under licence by the Polish state owned electronics company UNITRA Tonsil and marketed as the MCO-30 (omni) and the MCU-31 (cardioid). According to Polish sources, the only difference between the German and Polish versions appears to have been variation in quality control at the Tonsil factory. This lead to some Polish mics reputedly sounding rather better than others.

Around 1980 the design was modified and updated. Whether this was done by MB Electronic or by Tonsil’s own engineers is not clear. (MB licenced a number of different designs to Tonsil but sadly MBHO now have no records relating to this microphone !)…….. Anyhow, the resulting microphone was somewhat shorter in length, the battery powering was changed from 2 x 15v to 1 x 6v and the previously unbalanced output was upgraded to balanced. The WCU-31 and WCO-30 capsules were retained and the frequency response appears pretty much the same. The new model was the UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53 (cardioid) / MCO-52 (omni).  The Tonsil 50 series continued in production through the 1980’s. In the late 80’s a further modification was carried out to provide 48v phantom power. This model was the MC-265.

UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53

UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53 exploded view

A clever modular design. Well constructed and finished in shining nickel plate.

Tonsil WCU-31 Cardioid capsule. Front view

WCU-31 Cardioid capsule.

WCU-31 Cardioid capsule. Rear view.

Unusual 5 pin DIN connection.  (below)

Pins 4&5 in the plug are shorted together to provide a ‘switch’ for the battery. When the cable is plugged in the power is thereby switched on. N.B. This also means that if you accidently leave it connected when not in use you end up with a flat battery!! Arrrgh!

5 Pin DIN socket on Tonsil MCU-53 5 Pin DIN plug Tonsil MCU-53 Tonsil MCU-53 5 pin DIN Plug

Technical Specifications.

Pages from MCO-52/ MCU 53 Owner’s Manual UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53 ManualUNITRA Tonsil MCU-53 Manual P2UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53 Manual P3

In Conclusion.

Being battery powered made the MCU-52 /53 suitable for use with cameras and tape machines which in the 70’s and 80’s often did not provide phantom power. This made it a popular choice for wildlife and location recording.

When there is once again an opportunity to record music I will be interested to see how the MCU-53 compares to the AKG C451E as their frequency responses appear to be somewhat similar. I suspect the Tonsil may have a bit more self-noise but tonally may give the AKG a run for its money. Let’s wait and see…………

Credits.

Many thanks to Adam Wilma for sending me this pristine example of the UNITRA Tonsil MCU-53. Very generous. And thanks to my old mate blues guitarist Keith Thompson for bringing it back from Poland. His March tour was sadly cancelled after only 2 shows as Poland went into COVID-19 lockdown. Luckily for me the second gig was in Adam’s home town of Torun and he kindly dropped the mic off for Keith to bring back before the borders closed!

 

An Audio Postcard From The COVID-19 Lockdown 2020

AKG C451E (Circa 1970) A Classic from The Golden Age of AKG

Today AKG is little more than a brand name owned by a multi-national corporation. Like a tired old rock star it rests on the laurels of its former glory whilst still churning out a few old favourites.

However, if we go back to the late 1960’s and into the 70’s AKG was a powerhouse of innovative design and high-tech engineering. Major achievements include the D200 series which took dynamic microphone design to a peak which even today sees few competitors. This period also saw the legendary C12 condenser evolve into the C414 which continues to be a favourite in studios across the world.

In 1969 AKG launched its newly developed Condenser Microphone System (CMS) using audio frequency circuitry with Field Effect Transistors. This was a fully modular microphone system based around the C451E, the inherent features of which were claimed to be;

  • Low noise level,
  • Extremely high reliability and
  • Life-long sta­bility.                                                                                                    

AKG C451E with old style logo

AKG C451E no serial number

A selection of interchangeable capsules and extension tubes could be purchased along with a variety of accessories covering a wide range of recording and live sound applications. The CMS proved to be enormously popular with broadcasters, TV companies and studios throughout the 1970’s and beyond, and can be seen on many BBC music programmes of the period.

These contemporary AKG brochures/guides explain the features of the CMS in detail.

AKG C451 CMS Technical Specifications

Technical Info AKG CMS microphones.

AKG CK1 CapsuleAKG C451E with capsule removed.AKG C451E body with CK1 Capsule

C451E original case interior AKG C451E Original case

My C451E

Judging from the old style of logo and the lack of an externally stamped serial number on my newly purchased C451E (see top 2 pics), I think that it must be a fairly early example. It is in perfect condition and even the case is hardly marked. As always it was a bargain!

So What Does it Sound Like?    

Sadly, like many, many other people I am stuck at home at the moment practicing social distancing, and so recording music with my beautiful new C451E will have to wait until the current COVID-19 pandemic dies down and we can all get back to work!

Meanwhile Stay safe!

P.S.   Went for a walk today and recorded this:-    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5MHEL6ZPHI

 

Today (and every other day) Has Been Designated INTERNATIONAL CLEAN THE GERMS OFF YOUR MICROPHONE DAY!

My mate's 58

As most of us haven’t any work at the moment now might be a good time to clean up our act! Vocal mics have always been a bit of a health hazard, especially those that get shared on a regular basis.

Now might even be a good time for singers who don’t own their own microphone to think about making a purchase. Maybe even choose a microphone that really suits your voice rather than settling for whatever piece of old junk the PA company throws at you!

Meanwhile those of us techies that work in theatre, events or studios could spend a useful morning with a cloth dampened with isopropyl alcohol or similar disinfecting agent wiping down our stock of mics. With dynamic vocal mics such as the Shure SM58 the grill can be unscrewed and thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. The foam inside is also washable. In the case of older mics the foam might need to be replaced. This is not difficult to do for most modern microphones and can be easily purchased online, as can new grills.

N.B. However, exercise caution if you are dealing with expensive condensers or vintage mics as these may require specialist help. (If you own vintage mics I probably don’t need to tell you that!)

If on the other hand you own the SM58 pictured above you may need a blow-torch and a big hammer!!

Stay Safe.❤

 

Recording Marimba a New Experience!

One thing I really love about this job is that there is always something new to learn! Having worked as a Sound Engineer for more than 30 years, until last week I had never recorded a Marimba.Marimba One

What an amazing instrument! With a very wide frequency response and huge dynamic range the marimba produces a stunning variety of colour quite unlike any other percussion instrument I can think of. Such tonal subtlety coupled with a battery of rapid transients requires a careful choice of microphone/s.

I did consider using a pair of Sennheiser MD441 dynamics as they have the required frequency response and have an excellent track record on other varieties of percussion, producing a big ‘punchy’ sound with plenty of attack.  I also considered going down the condenser route with a pair of AKG C414s. Great frequency response and bags of detail.  But………… In the end I realised that what was really needed to capture those rapid transients and subtle detail was a high quality stereo ribbon!  In many respects a ribbon microphone has the best of both worlds. Being a variety of dynamic it can pack a great deal of attack and ‘punch’ and on the other hand has an incredibly light diaphragm (ribbon) which can react to transients and fine detail with incredible precision. There is also an intangible ‘smoothness’ to ribbons that even the best condensers just don’t seem to have.

Extinct Audio’s ‘Valkyr’ BM9x2 Stereo Ribbon Microphone was placed on a tall stand, stage centre, about 2m away from the instrument.  The mic set in M-S configuration.

CLICK HERE to hear an excerpt from virtuoso percussionist 18 year old Darcy Beck (winner of Gloucestershire Young Musician of The Year 2020) performing ‘Prism’ by Japanese composer Keiko Abe.Darcy Beck marimbaDarcy Beck marimba

In Conclusion

Apart from capturing the fine detail of even the most rapid passages the ‘Valkyr’ also delivers a very pleasing impression of the reverberant acoustics of the hall.

Acel GM-17B. A ‘Mystery’ Polish Microphone (Circa 1987)

This wonderfully shiny and somewhat obscure vintage microphone was kindly sent to me as a Christmas gift by Adam Wilma, one of my Polish readers!

It is interesting, not because of its fabulous quality, but because it provides a small window into a fairly grim chapter of Polish history.

Acel GM-17B Cardioid Dynamic Microphone

GM-17B Cardioid Dynamic Stage Microphone

GM-17B Box

After 30 years of Communist misrule, the Polish economy was in an extremely precarious state with serious shortages of many goods. Shops were empty with long queues in the streets. In March 1979 the Ministry of Internal Trade listed 280 products for which demand was difficult to satisfy and the list grew longer in the following year. 1980 saw the formation of the free trade union Solidarity and the end of Communism seemed to be in sight. However, in 1981 General Jaruzelski declared martial law and Solidarity was banned. The USA imposed sanctions and for the next 10 years the Polish economy struggled along in a state of collapse. This lead to the rapid growth of a black or ‘grey’ market. In these conditions a ‘second’ or ‘parallel’ private sector economy flourished.

Acel GM-!7B Dynamic MicrophoneSmall scale private businesses were broadly tolerated and allowed to function supplying demands that could not be met by the ‘official’ economy. However, if a company became too large and successful it risked attracting unwelcome attention from the Communist bureaucracy and might be shut down and its assets seized. This probably explains why the Acel GM-17B microphone pictured in this post, with its original packaging, gives away little clue about the company who made it or their whereabouts! So far all attempts to trace the manufacturer have failed! Goods like this were sold through local craft associations/co-operatives, which was a way of avoiding the many permits and licences that were officially required. All we know is that this particular microphone was sold in 1987 by the Multi-Branch Co-operative in Leszno. The previous owner informed me that it cost 15,330 old zloty. (For comparison, in the same year a kilo of carrots cost 50 zloty, and a kilo of tomatoes 200 zloty).

1980’s Polish Music Scene

For musicians this was a difficult time and few could afford good quality equipment imported from abroad. The electrical industry had been particularly affected by shortages of raw materials, components and machinery. Local manufacturers did their best to meet demand with limited resources. Sadly the resulting equipment was often somewhat less than ideal! Paradoxically, this decade saw a flowering of rock music in Poland. In no other communist country was there such freedom for musicians. It was not by accident – the communist authorities calculated that for young people it would be a good way to neutralize frustration. Freedom for various subcultures also served to draw young people away from the Catholic Church, which was perceived to be their greatest threat. It was not by chance that the dates of the biggest music festivals coincided with important dates in the Catholic calendar.

Polish Plug Problems!  

One Acel GM-17B Connector.slightly annoying feature of Polish-made gear of this period is the non-standard connector! Although this may look like a standard Klein Tuchel socket (as found on German and Austrian mics of the 60’s and 70’s), the locking ring is slightly larger with a different thread. I am told that Polish-made guitars often came with non-standard jack sockets. Slightly bigger or smaller! Presumably this meant that you would have to purchase a special lead from the maker at extra cost. Or maybe it was to avoid patent infringement? Who knows?………….Anyway, an ordinary Tuchel plug on the GM-17B can be kept in place with a piece of gaffer tape!

So What Does it Sound Like?  

During the Communist era, here in Western Europe we were always lead to believe that products made in the USSR and Eastern Europe were bound to be inferior to anything made in the West! Indeed, even now I am assured by a musical connection in Poland that Polish-made gear of this period was very poor and that this microphone can probably be summed up by one word: ‘CRAP’!!  Anyhow, I don’t like to jump to conclusions so I thought I would give it a fair trial……………..

CLICK HERE TO HEAR THE GM-17B in action…….. and reach your own verdict!

Many thanks to Keith Thompson for the tasty guitars and vocals (I played shaker and programmed the kick!) and thanks once again to Adam Wilma for sending this interesting and unusual microphone.

 

Season’s Greeting to All My Readers! (Just in case you need some more Christmas Music!)

Usually at this time of the year I post a slightly crazy photo, but this year I thought you might like an audio Christmas card! This video is a piece of Christmassy joy captured by the Extinct Audio BM9x2 ‘Valkyr’ Stereo Ribbon Microphone. Apart from the fabulous audio quality and detailed stereo image this microphone is also extremely unobtrusive (see pics), making it perfect for this type of live performance.

No EQ or processing has been used.

Many thanks to Pam Smith at http://www.petalpics.co.uk/ for the great photos.

Martin Mitchell’s Music For 3 Saucepan Lids and Spatula ! Recorded by the Gaumont-Kalee Type 492. 😊

Inspired by washing up! I did this recording for a bit of amusement on a cold rainy Saturday morning (crazy sound engineer’s idea of having fun!) ……… but I really love the way this beautiful old ribbon mic reproduces the ring and detail of these sounds. I suspect that the 492 would also make a great drum overhead. Anyhow, enjoy!

Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 Ribbon Microphone (Circa 1950) A rare piece of British cinema history.

Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 Side viewGaumont-Kalee Type 492 Side view2Gaumont-Kalee Type 492Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 Box

I bought this microphone out of curiosity! It caught my attention because I had never seen or heard of it before (shock, horror!).  It came in its original felt lined wooden box, of the kind normally reserved for valuable scientific instruments. The name Gaumont I recalled from the old UK cinema chain but beyond that I knew nothing.

Researching this microphone has proved to be a challenging task.

It would appear that the Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 was never on sale to the general public. It was marketed along with other Gaumont-Kalee equipment purely within the cinema industry. So far the only contemporary references I have found have been in trade journals such as British Kinematography and Cine Technician.

It was manufactured by British Acoustic Films Ltd (B.A.F.), which by 1947, along with Gaumont-Kalee, was one of the many companies which made up The Rank Organisation.

Specifically designed as a boom mounted microphone, the Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 was most likely used to record dialogue and music for the classic British movies made at The Rank Organisation’s studios in the 1950’s. By this time The Rank Organisation in Britain had become one of the biggest film companies in the world. They owned 5 major studios including Pinewood and Ealing and Denham. Rank also owned and controlled distribution for several hundred UK cinemas.

B.A.F., under the Gaumont-Kalee brand, produced a number of sound recorders for the cinema industry, both optical and magnetic. Below is an advert from Cine Technician March-April 1953. My assumption based on this is that the Type 492 ribbon mic (and the Type 493 condenser not covered here) were designed for use with these machines. A 1947 BBC technical report on The G-K Sound on Film Recorder also makes passing mention of 2 microphones being supplied with the machine.

The Gaumont-Kalee Portable Recording Equipment pictured here features 35mm or 17.5mm sprocketed magnetic film which could be run in sync with a professional movie camera. In post-production this enabled easy editing and transfer.Gaumont-Kalee Portable Recording Equipment

These days when we talk about portable sound recording equipment we are maybe thinking of something the size of a mobile phone. The ‘portable’ equipment described above would have filled the boot of a car and required fairly muscular crew to carry it! However, its mobility nevertheless extended the possibilities of location recording both for TV and film production. (Also worth mentioning that magnetic film made a considerable improvement to the available frequency response.)

From this advert it can be noted that other users included BBC Television, Universal, a number of Newsreel companies, San Angel Inn (Mexico) and Dear Film (Rome).

 

Technical Information on the Gaumont-Kalee Type 492

In the absence of any detailed manufacturer’s literature, below I have made some observations and speculation about the design of this mic.

Noise has always been the enemy of the motion picture sound recordist, whether it be camera and equipment noise, on-set noise, tape hiss, or electrical interference generated by lighting. Trying to obtain clarity, especially in dialogue, has always been something of a challenge. This was particularly true in the age before shotgun mics.

  • In common with all figure of eight microphones the dead zones at the sides of the Type 492 could be directed to minimise unwanted mechanical noise from cameras and other equipment.
  • The yellow wiring around the ribbon is cunningly arranged to form a humbucking loop, helping to reject electromagnetically induced–noise. This is very useful when operating in the vicinity of lighting equipment and large mains transformers radiating strong magnetic fields.
  • In addition, the interior of the grill is lined with ultra-fine wire mesh which not only provides a certain amount of blast protection and back pressure for the ribbon but also creates an effective Faraday Cage.Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 inside 1Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 inside 2
  • The interesting-looking baffle arrangement on either side of the ribbon has the effect of producing a boost to the high end frequency response. This may provide greater clarity to dialogue, especially when recording at a distance (in order to keep the boom mounted 492 out of the camera shot). It was also common practice at this time to boost signals going to magnetic tape at around 4kHz on the way in and cut by the same amount on playback. This returned the desired signal to flat and reduced unwanted tape hiss by several db.Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 inside 3Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 inside 4
  • The connector pictured above is a Reslo. This mic came with a 3 pin Amphenol. When I took the mic apart it became clear that this was a modification as it was chipped and had been filed to fit! Stewart Tavener at Xaudia informed me that the two 492s he had previously repaired had Reslo connectors. The Reslo fitted perfectly. Thanks Stewart!
  • Unlike many of the ribbon microphones of the period which have impedances of 50 ohms or less, this Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 has an impedance of 300 ohms with a strong output signal which requires considerably less amplification than many of its contemporaries.

So what does the Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 sound like? CLICK HERE.

 In Conclusion.

Having emailed academic institutions, museums, collectors and fellow sound engineers all over the world, so far I have only tracked down a handful people who have come across the Type 492. The serial number on mine is 132 and I assume from the complete dearth of information that only a limited number were made. Sadly, much of the recording equipment from that period has long since gone in the bin along with company records, technical literature and drawings. Trying to unearth information about the Gaumont-Kalee Type 492 has highlighted to me the growing problem of vanishing history in the field of audio technology. Living links to the past are dying out and records are being lost. It is therefore important to preserve what we can before it is too late!

NEWS FLASH UPDATE  12 Nov.2019  

   have kindly unearthed this single page ad for the Gaumont- Kalee Type 492 and Type 493  in a May 1951 GB-Kalee product catalogue ‘Everything for the Cinema and Theatre’.  GB Kalee Type 492 Advert 1951

UPDATE 28th Nov.

Stroke of luck! Have just purchased this GB-Kalee Catalogue for 1950 on ebay and here on page 4 are the frequency response graphs for the Type 492 and 493!

GB-Kalee 1950 Catalogue. Cover

Gaumont British-Kalee proudly projects it’s brand across the world! The British Empire is marked in pink. Within a couple of decades the Empire was gone along with GB-Kalee and most of British industry!  (N.B. Even by 1950 the map above was out of date. India got rid of us in 1947 !)

 


Gaumont-Kalee Catalogue Page 4

Useful Links.

https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/an-engineer-works-on-a-laboratory-set-up-to-develop-news-photo/90777079?adppopup=true   Taken at B.A.F. factory at Mitcheldean in Gloucestershire in 1953, on the workbench is a Gaumont-Kalee Type 492. The zeppelin shaped mic up in the air is the Type 493 condenser.

http://xaudiaelektrik.blogspot.com/2014/02/motm-gaumont-kalee-type-1492-ribbon-mic.html  It is interesting to note that the microphone featured here has a 1 inserted in front of the 492. Apart from having an impedance of 50 ohms, what the difference was I have no idea.

1962 BBC Training Manual

In the 1951 BBC Microphones training manual we saw that the corporation functioned with a small selection of British manufactured microphones, most of which had been in service since the 1930’s.  So when I saw this Manual from 1962 I was curious to see how ‘Auntie’ had moved on into the swinging sixties.

BBC Training Manual 1962

Old favourites continued in use.                                                                                         BBC Training Manual 1962 STC Dynamic Microphones

The STC4021 ‘Apple and Biscuit’ first appeared in 1935 as did the famous Marconi A series ribbon microphone pictured on the page below. (The AXBT is the 4th generation).  The STC4035 was a lighter, updated replacement for the old STC 4017, which had been phased out in the mid 50’s. The 4032 is identical to the 4035 but housed in a neat handheld Bakelite body making it suitable for outdoor use in all weathers. The 4037 was designed for TV and has a rather more modern look (slim lightweight body and matt black finish). However, the capsule is still pretty much the same as the good old ‘Apple and Biscuit’. STC’s dynamic models were the tried and tested backbone of general purpose and outside broadcasting. The noise-cancelling STC4104 lip ribbon mic was used for sports commentary and noisy events. This was an updated version of the older Marconi lip ribbon microphone. More recently manufactured by Coles, the 4104 continues in production to this day.

BBC Training Manual 1962 Ribbon Microphones

So what was new?

FM broadcasting by the BBC began in 1955 and the audio frequency response was thereby extended from 5 kHz up to 15 kHz. The new FM system was also considerably less susceptible to noise and interference than AM. Although the old favourite microphones from STC and Marconi were still fine for everyday transmission of speech, when it came to the broadcasting of high quality music, mics with improved high end response were now required. With this in mind the BBC Research Department designed 2 new ribbon microphones (pictured above). First came the PGS (Pressure Gradient with a Single magnet) and from this developed the 4038. Manufactured by STC these new microphones were considerably smaller and lighter than the old Marconi AXBT, and had an almost flat frequency response up to 15 kHz. This was around ½ an octave higher than the mighty AXBT. Now manufactured by Coles the 4038 continues in service to this day and is still recognised as one of the finest ribbon microphones available.

The photograph below is rather bizarre. In real life the STC4033 is around 3x bigger than the Reslo! The Reslo was small and convenient for use on TV (as mentioned in my previous blog post). The STC4033 is an unusual hybrid, similar in design to the classic Western Electric 639 ‘Birdcage’. It has an ‘Apple and Biscuit’ type omni dynamic element, and a ribbon element. This gives a choice of switchable polar patterns. Using the elements separately we have Omni or Figure of Eight and by combining the outputs of both we obtain Cardioid. Nevertheless, by 1962 the STC4033 was a somewhat antiquated design and no match for the more sophisticated competition coming out of Germany and Austria.

BBC Training Manual 1962 Reslo and STC4033

Enter AKG and Neumann……….

A number of high quality condenser microphones now appeared in the BBC microphone locker. The legendary AKG C12 quickly became a firm favourite for the broadcasting of concerts and was very often the only microphone used to capture a symphony orchestra in glorious Mono! The AKG C28, C29 and C30 were perfect for solo performers on live TV. The variable extension pieces made it easy for unobtrusive positioning.

BBC Traing Manual 1962 AKG C12.jpgBBC Traing Manual 1962 AKGC28 .jpg

The Neumann KM54 cardioid, and the multi-pattern KM56 were also popular choices for high quality broadcasting.

BBC Training Manual 1962 Neumann KM54BBC Training Manual 1962 Neumann KM56

Other Microphones.

A number of other microphones are given a mention but not honoured with a photo. The Corporation was still very much dominated by BBC Radio and most of these microphones are from the rapidly evolving new world of BBC Television. TV presenters very often needed to keep their hands free and microphones ‘in shot’ needed to be small and unobtrusive.

BBC Training Manual 1962BBC Training Manual 1962BBC Training Manual 1962

The Placing of Microphones
The diagrams and explanations on the pages below provide an interesting insight into the lost world of recording and broadcasting in Mono.

BBC Training Manual 1962 Microphone Placement 01

The BBC philosophy for the broadcasting of classical music is best summed up in the opening sentence of the page below.  In the manual there is a clear distinction between music which requires the engineer to simply reproduce a ‘true balance’ created by the conductor and the performers (captured by one microphone), and more popular forms of music which require the engineer to create the balance from a number of microphones. Today this distinction has been all but lost.

BBC Training Manual 1962 Microphone Placement 02BBC Training Manual 1962 Microphone Placement 03

 Modern Dance Bands

BBC Training Manual 1962 Microphone Placement 05

Setups for Dance Bands.

BBC Training Manual 1962 Microphone Placement 06BBC Training Manual 1962

The section above on Modern Dance Bands contains no mention of the latest Beat Groups, Rock’n’Roll or Skiffle. BBC thinking was clearly lagging at least 5 years behind the latest trends in popular music. If you were a teenager in 1962 the ensembles mentioned above are the sort of music your Mum and Dad would have liked! Within a couple of years British teenagers were under the bedclothes every night with a transistor radio listening to their favourite music coming from pirate radio stations such a Radio Caroline and Radio London, illegally broadcasting from offshore. It wasn’t until 1967 that the BBC threw in the towel and set up Radio 1 to cater for a younger audience!

STEREOPHONY

The final chapter of the manual is devoted to describing the basic principles of ‘STEREOPHONY’. Even though stereophonic records had been around for several years, by 1962 stereo broadcasting was still in it’s infancy. Around this time there were a number of experimental BBC broadcasts. In our house I can remember my Dad following the instructions for a particular broadcast by setting up 2 radio sets tuned to different programmes, one carrying the left-hand channel and one carrying the right !! Unfortunately the 2 radios were very different sizes and so the effect was somewhat less than perfect! It was not until 1973 that Radios 1,2 and 4 finally broadcast in stereo.

In Conclusion.

Although a small amount of space is given to sound in the context of television, this manual is firmly focused on ‘High-Quality Sound Production and Reproduction’ for BBC Radio. Tape had pretty much replaced 78 rpm discs as the primary means of recording and storing programmes. FM broadcasting was a huge technical leap forward and the arrival of some new condenser microphones further improved the quality of the output. Nevertheless, in many respects, even by 1962 ‘Auntie’ still had one foot firmly in the 1930’s !